In January 2017, the 8th mission of the Dutch team of Operation Hernia took  place. This year a team of eight surgeons and eight residents went to the Ghanaian towns of Keta, Wenchi and Bole. The teams had as goal to treat as many patients as possible.  A second equally important goal was to teach local physicians to perform inguinal hernia surgery with a mesh (Lichtenstein procedure under local anaesthesia), so they would be able to continue performing these operations after the mission had finished, and they eventually can teach others.

On Saturday the 7th January the members of operation hernia arrived in Accra.  The next day 8 surgeons and residents went by car to Takoradi and the other 8 took a domestic flight north to Kumasi.  There they split up and a team of four went by car to Wenchi while the other four drove to Bole in the northwest region of Ghana.

Since elective surgery and in particular hernia surgery is rare in this country, many patients travelled from near and far to be treated by the Dutch team of Operation Hernia.  An untreated inguinal hernia causes, besides effect on daily activities and cessation of professional activities, a substantial health risk.  In case of incarceration, mortality rates up to 80% are not exceptional.  So the goal of our visit is clear: treat as many patients as possible!  And, equally important, teach local physicians and nurses to perform hernia operation and provide care afterwards.

Takoradi team

After a drive of approximately 5 hours we arrived at Takoradi. During the trip we already got to know Ghana a bit and this made us more and more enthusiastic to start our mission. Since Takoradi has a fantastic coastline, we first visited the beach and ended the day with a dive and some drinks over there.  We speculated what the week would bring us.

The next morning, after the delicious Ghanaian breakfast, with Dutch peanut butter, we were split in three groups since we were working in three totally different hospitals.

GPHA is a private hospital.  Dr Bernard Boateng is the leading doctor in this beautiful hospital with even a CT-scan.  The theatre staff were friendly and very capable. Rapidly, an inguinal hernia was followed by a giant hydrocele alternated by an emergency Caesarean section. Days flew by, in total 27 operations were performed in this hospital.  The medical staff were well trained and a pleasure to work with.

The largest hospital, Takoradi hospital has its own hernia wing. The head of theatre there is Marian.  A great personality, she and her team made our mission even more special. Time flew, while working hard in the wing there was a lot of fun! In the Hernia Wing, a total of 29 surgical procedures were successfully performed.  The majority were adult male patients with inguinal hernias treated with a Lichtenstein procedure under local anaesthesia. The severity varied from H1 to H4 (large scrotal hernias), all treated with a mesh brought from the Netherlands. The Takoradi group operated on 9 children under the age of 9.  A herniotomy was performed with general anaesthesia.  In both the Hernia Wing and GPHA, young doctors were joining us to be taught about the Lichtenstein procedure. It was great to see their enthusiasm and we were convinced of their surgical skills.

Dixcove, a small hospital in the more rural area outside of Takoradi, was a great place to visit.  In this hospital, with an anesthetist known for his fast spinal anaesthesia technique, working was extraordinary. The theatre was used optimally, a Lichtenstein procedure was performed while a Caesarean section had to start.  No problem, in Dixcove they perform this at the same time in the same room!  A great experience!  We were very happy to work with the medical staff and hopefully the same applies for them. Working in this hospital was sometimes even a real party, especially when the scrub nurse started to dance to our music in between the surgeries.  The fact that we worked hard besides the fun is shown in the total of 20 surgeries performed. In total 76 patients were treated by the Takoradi group.


Bole team

Together with the Wenchi group we took an inland flight north to Kumasi. From there our groups split and the four of us were picked up by Baba, the Bole hospital ambulance driver. All the equipment we brought was loaded in the back of his pick-up truck and off we went. Our six hour drive was interrupted only for a short introduction to the Ghanaian cuisine: banku! (a mixture of fermented corn and cassava dough in hot water).  Along the way the setting changed into more rural scenery.  While listening to the car radio we heard a broadcast to invite patients with inguinal hernia to register for surgery at the Bole Hospital. This way, Dr. Josephat Nyuzaghl (Dr. Joe), one of the two local doctors of the Bole hospital and our contact person, had efficiently recruited patients for surgery!

After a long day of travelling we were welcomed by the hospital administrator and the medical director of the Bole hospital, and Dr. Joe kindly showed us around.  Many patients had responded to the radio broadcasts, so our days started early with the screening of patients that had queued up in front of the male ward.  After this we started surgery and worked together with the enthusiastic local operation team until all patients, that were put on the list that morning, were operated on.  The hospital has two functioning operating rooms and we therefore divided into two teams of a surgeon and a resident mixing the pairings. The vast majority of patients were operated on under local anesthetic, only some patients had a spinal anesthetic. We had the opportunity to use sterilized mosquito net meshes that worked very well.

Vitus, the pragmatic nurse anesthetist, organized the operation list and made sure everyone of the team knew exactly what to do.  Not a minute of our time there was lost. The whole team worked extremely hard, sometimes until late in the evening!  We had little chance to work together with Dr. Jatuat, the young local surgeon, who was kept busy with other patients since he and Dr. Joe are the only physicians in this region.  In total over the week we carried out 83 procedures in 74 men, women and children.  All patients stayed in the ward the night postoperatively and were discharged the next morning.

As a special treat after we finished Dr. Joe had kindly organized a send-off party with drinks and food (guinea fowl). We had the chance to thank the Bole Hospital staff for making us feel so welcome. We were presented with custom made smock, worn on special occasions. We would all like to reiterate our thanks to Dr Joe, Vitus and the staff at Bole Hospital. Finally we would also like to thank the Ghana Government for facilitating our mission. We will be visiting again.

Wenchi team

At Kumasi airport we were welcomed by Dr. Bibi Bosomtwe who took us on a 2.5 hour drive north through the beautiful Ghanaian landscape to the town of Wenchi.  Wenchi is the capital of Wenchi Municipal of the Brong-Ahafo Region in South Ghana with a population of around 40,000 people. On arrival we were greeted by Bernard Clement Botwe, the charismatic CEO of the Wenchi Methodist Hospital.  Afterwards we were brought to our accommodation for the upcoming week, a nice guesthouse just outside Wenchi. Here we were joined by Sarah, a Ghanaian scrub nurse with experience in assisting during the Operation Hernia Missions. She was asked specifically for this mission to come and assist, and to teach the scrub nurses of Wenchi Methodist Hospital.

On Monday morning we were picked up by the hospital bus and were taken to the Methodist Hospital.  It is a lovely typical Ghanaian hospital with approximately 300 beds. We met the anaesthesia medical officers, scrub nurses and the local physician we were going to train, Bismark Kubi.  After discussing our plans for the week we got acquainted with the two small but adequate operating theatres, which were going to be our work environment. The enthusiasm of the complete operating room (OR) personnel and everyone at the Wenchi hospital from the first second of our visit was impressive.

Every day started with screening of the potential patients. Numerous patients from the whole region surrounding the hospital had responded to the call for treatment. After screening, eligible patients were seated outside the operation theatres until surgery. Most patients were treated under local anaesthesia; they walked into the OR, underwent inguinal hernia correction with a mesh, and afterwards walked out of the OR by themselves. For exceptional cases, such as irreducible and bilateral hernias, spinal anaesthesia was available. Children with inguinal hernias were treated under general anaesthesia with Ketamine.

During our stay at Wenchi Methodist hospital, 45 patients with a total of 52 hernias were operated. Doctor Bismark Kubi, who was already well acquainted with hernia surgery but did not have any experience with the use of a mesh, was trained in performing the Lichtenstein procedure.  He proved to be a very skilled, kind and enthusiastic doctor who learned quickly. At end of the week, he was able to safely perform the procedure by himself. As we were able to donate a significant number of surgical meshes, adequate care of inguinal hernias at the Wenchi Methodist hospital can be continued.

We ended the week with a party on the final evening, which we organized to thank the staff of for their kind hospitality. Together with the OR personnel we looked back at a successful and enjoyable week. Kind words were spoken both from the Ghanaian and the Dutch side, and mutual hopes for future collaborations were expressed.


The Dutch Operation Hernia team gratefully acknowledges the MRC foundation for providing the necessary funds in order to be able to treat so many patients with such a large team.

Also the hospital staff of the anaesthesia, pharmacy and surgery departments of the Hospitals OLVG, St Antonius and Tergooi are gratefully acknowledged for providing materials and medication.

The surgeons performed the surgery on a voluntary basis in their own time.

Team Ghana 2017

Maarten Simons, Frank Ijpma, Eddy Hendriks, Nanette van Geloven, Bert van Ramshorst, Djamila Boerma, Wouter te Riele, Daphne Roos, Ernst Steller, Jasper Atema, Tjibbe Gardenbroek, Jip Tolenaar, Charlotte Loozen, Anne Loes van den Boom, Marjolein Leeuwenburgh, Joost Hoekstra

The Dutch Operation Hernia Foundation

Maarten Simons, Frank Garssen, Djamila Boerma, Nanette van Geloven and Eddy Hendriks

Friday 28th October 2016



On 15th October 2016, Operation Hernia celebrated its 10th Anniversary at the city of its birth, Takoradi in Ghana. It was also a celebration of Ghanaian culture of pomp and pageantry. It was truly, a memorable night. The great and the good in the history of Operation Hernia were present as well as a television crew from the Takoradi Sky TV.

Traditional Dancing

The evening started with traditional drumming and dancing. Drums were played in a coordinated fashion to produce a unique rhythm of authentic Ghanaian music. Energetic traditional dancers performed their complex choreography with grace and passion. They were where clad in very colourful Ghanaian fabric called “kente”. They treated the gathering to an array of mesmerising traditional dances with different themes.

Operation Hernia Exhibition

A photographic exhibition of the Operation Hernia story was opened earlier. It featured the first Operation Hernia team that visited in 2005. On display were photographs of the inauguration by the then British High Commissioner and his deputy, and also the opening of the Hernia Centre at Takoradi Hospital. Photographs of various teams that have visited Takoradi and other centres from 2005 to 2015 were displayed. The series of photographs that stood out depicted the steps in the repair of a large hernia. The use of Operation Hernia Mesh (low cost and affordable) was also highlighted in the exhibition. The picture posters were designed by Mr Bediako, Marketing Manager at Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority (GPHA).

Poster showing details of the first Operation Hernia visit on 2005

Poster showing details of the first Operation Hernia visit on 2005

Main Event

All the attending personalities were acknowledged by Dr Bernard Boateng Duah, local Medical Director of Operation Hernia. We were privileged to have the original group of local doctors and administrators who were instrumental in the nurturing of Operation Hernia. This included the following personalities:-

1. Mr Edwin Philips, a local businessman

2. Mr Philip Nkrumah, the then city manager

3. Dr Kofi Asare, Medical Director of Takoradi Hospital

4. Dr Linda Vanotoo, the then Regional Medical Director

5. Mr Eddie Prah, local businessman and Business Manager of Operation Hernia

The following two personalities were not at the celebration but have been part of the “early brigade” who made substantial contributions to the success of Operation Hernia and deserve our deepest gratitude.

6. Mr Brian Dixon, Ghana Representative for Canadian Natural Resources (CNR) an international oil and gas producer

7. Miss Kate Mensah, our domestic manager. She did not attend but was acknowledged.

The keynote speech was delivered by Chris Oppong, Chairman of Operation Hernia. He emphasised the fact that the success of Operation Hernia is due to the passion and commitment of our selfless volunteers who sacrifice so much for the needy operation hernia patients, and the local doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, drivers, administrators and the culinary and domestic management skills of Kate and Lilian Mensah and their group of caterers. The pioneering role played by the former CEO Prof Andrew Kingsnorth was recognised both in the keynote speech and in the photographic exhibition. Operation Hernia has treated over 9000 patients and trained several local doctors as well as UK and EU surgical trainees. Emphasis has now shifted to training as exemplified by the recently completed training of ten surgical trainees of the College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa (COSECSA) in Uganda. Dr Bernard Boateng was given a deserved standing ovation for the tremendous role he has played in sustaining the work of Operation Hernia.

Poster outlining the work of Operation Hernia over the last 10 years

Poster outlining the work of Operation Hernia over the last 10 years

At Work

Takoradi, Ghana January 2014

Operation Hernia – Polish Team to Takoradi/Dixcove (Ghana)

18-25.January 2014

Team members: Maciej mietañski, Kamil Bury, Magda Bury, Maciej Pawlak, Stefan mietañski, D. Richert

At Work

At Work

Since 2005 Operation Hernia sends doctors of good will to Takoradi in Ghana to help Dr Bernard Boateng Duah to treat people suffering from hernia and related diseases. On the 17th of January 2014 three doctors under leadership of Maciej mietañski fled cold Polish winter and have landed in benevolent and warm embraces of Accra to become a part of fantastic charity mission.

After a day of traveling with few sightseeing stops in Kakum National Park and Elmina Castle we have reached Takoradi. During the week of intense work the two teams, one in Takoradi and the second in Dixcove, we have managed to operate more than 50 cases. For the young doctors Kamil Bury and Maciej Pawlak it was an amazing and memorable experience. We were the second team to work in Dixocve and were met with fantastic welcoming and gratitude and therefore generated a good spirit of cooperation and much satisfaction.

Maciej mietañski as always made an excellent work, operating on the most difficult cases and performing as many as 10 operations per day. In both Takoradi Hospital and GPHA Hospital we were met with good atmosphere that made the hard days of surgery pleasant and memorable.

The last few days of our mission we have spend recharging batteries on the beach near Akwidaa, beautiful place with long sandy beaches, huge waves and cold Star beer.

Unfortunately good times ends to fast and our pack had to leave Ghana and head back to Poland where thermometers were showing -15oC. We will surely return with some more help and a mission to the Northern Region.

We would like to thank Dr Boateng for all of his help and for being there for us in the difficult moments and also to Linda and Benedicte for taking good care of us in the Villa. Special thanks to the staff in the Takoradi Hospital, GPHA Hospital and Dixcove Hospital for their help and worm welcome.

Polish Team Takoradi.

Members of the Team

David Messenger: First Shorland Hosking Fellow November 2012

The ASiT/Operation Hernia Shorland Hosking Travelling Fellowship to Takoradi, Ghana

David Messenger, ST6 in General Surgery, Severn Deanery


In March 2012, I was fortunate enough to be awarded one of the first ASiT/Operation Hernia travelling fellowships. The funding for my fellowship was donated largely by Howard Eggleston, a former patient of Professor Andrew Kingsnorth’s, and was named in honour of Shorland Hosking, a consultant surgeon from Poole, who died tragically in an air accident shortly after returning from an Operation Hernia mission to Nigeria.

Operation Hernia is an independent, not-for-profit organisation, whose mission statement is ‘to provide high quality surgery at minimal costs to patients that otherwise would not receive it’. It was initiated in 2005 from Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, via the city’s cultural links with Takoradi, Ghana. Operation Hernia has since expanded and to date has repaired over 6000 hernias, at 18 locations in 11 different countries with teams originating from 22 countries.

I have had a long-standing interest in hernia surgery and have never failed to appreciate the impact that an effective hernia repair can have on the quality of life of the patient. It was this opportunity to undertake a humanitarian mission where my surgical skills would be of maximal benefit to a community where healthcare resources are limited that prompted me to apply for the fellowship.

I chose the mission to Ghana, as this was my first experience of humanitarian surgery and I wanted this to be in a well established setting. The prevalence of inguinal hernia in Ghana is as high as 7.7% of the population.1 However, less than 40% are actually repaired, resulting in many patients developing long-standing inguinoscrotal hernias that are associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality.2 Presentation is often delayed and approximately two-thirds of cases are repaired as emergencies.

Sekondi-Takoradi is located in the Western Region of Ghana with a population of almost 450,000 (Figure 1). Its principal industries are timber, ship-building and crude oil. The discovery of the latter has led to a dramatic expansion of the metropolitan area in recent years. Most of the adult workforce is engaged in physically demanding jobs where the effects of an untreated hernia can be debilitating. The stark reality is that if you are unable to work, then there is little means to support both yourself and your family. The value of the mission could not be clearer.


The co-ordination of the mission was masterminded by Mr Chris Oppong, a consultant surgeon from Derriford and Director of Operations for Ghana. It soon became apparent that an anaesthetist was required and I duly offered the services of my wife (!), Dr Natasha Joshi, an ST7 anaesthetic trainee, who was supported by a travelling grant from the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. Our preparations included undergoing an extensive vaccination programme, obtaining visas from the Ghanaian High Commission in London, arranging flights and gathering together an array of gloves, gowns, sutures, laryngeal mask airways and portable pulse oximeters! We are grateful to the Spire Hospital, Bristol, and those colleagues who were kind enough to donate equipment for the mission. Operation Hernia has pioneered the use of polyester mosquito net meshes as a cost-effective means of hernia repair and these were pre-sterilised at the Derriford and Royal Gwent hospitals prior to our journey.

After arriving in the capital, Accra, the team assembled at a local guest house, before travelling on to Takoradi by road the next day. In addition to Natasha and me, our team consisted of two consultant surgeons from Dewsbury: Mr Shina Fawole, team leader and a veteran of three previous Operation Hernia missions, and his colleague Mr Harjeet Narula. They were accompanied by Melanie Precious, a Senior Operating Department Practitioner, also from Dewsbury, proving the old adage that a surgeon cannot operate without at least one member of their regular theatre team! In fact, Melanie’s scrub and anaesthetic experience were to prove invaluable throughout the course of the mission. The final members of the team included Mr Rafay Siddiqui, an ST4 general surgical trainee from the London Deanery, and Mr Roger Watkins, a recently retired consultant surgeon from Derriford, who joined us for the final two days of our mission after conducting a separate mission to the Cape Coast (Figure 2).

The Mission

On arrival in Takoradi, we were met by Dr Bernard Boateng-Duah, Chief Medical Officer of the Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority Hospital, who was in charge of the logistical arrangements of our stay. We had the exclusive use of a Ghana Ministry of Health Villa, which provided a welcome respite at the end of a long day’s operating (occasional disruption to the hot water and electricity supplies not withstanding!). The culinary skills of the catering team were superb who ensured that we had the opportunity to enjoy variety of Ghanaian dishes (Figure 3).

Bernard had already co-ordinated the not insignificant task of selecting patients for our mission. Recruitment had largely occurred through radio announcements, clinic visits and perhaps most pleasingly through word of mouth. A prime example of this was the patient who told me he had waited all year for his hernia to be repaired just so the British surgeons could perform his surgery! We operated at three sites during the week: Ghana Ports and Harbour Authority Hospital, Takoradi Hospital and Dixcove Hospital, located a one hour drive from Takoradi (Figures 4 a,b and c). At Takoradi Hospital a disused wing had been refurbished in 2006, with funding from the British High Commission, to create the Hernia Treatment Centre that incorporated an operating theatre and day-case ward.

On the morning of surgery, patients were pre-assessed and a decision made with regards suitability for repair under local, spinal or general anaesthesia. As a general rule, inguinal hernias that were manually reducible were repaired under local anaesthesia, with irreducible hernias or those with a substantial inguinoscrotal component being performed under spinal anaesthesia. General anaesthesia was reserved for incisional hernias and paediatric herniotomies. Over the course of the five-day mission, our team performed a total of 94 procedures in 87 patients (Table 1). Inguinal hernia repairs accounted for 71 cases (including 6 recurrent), of which 39 (55%) were performed under local anaesthesia. The majority of inguinal hernias were inguinoscrotal, or H3/H4 according to the Kingsnorth classification system (Table 2)3. Polyester mosquito net meshes were used for repair in 37 inguinal hernias with the remainder being repaired using brand mesh left over from previous missions. The handling of the mosquito net meshes was broadly comparable to that of brand mesh, although we found that bigger bites with each suture were required to adequately secure the mesh. There were no post-operative complications and all adult hernia repairs were discharged on the day of surgery. Only one patient who had undergone repair of a large incisional hernia stayed overnight.

Initially, repair of the inguinal hernias proved to something of a technical challenge, owing to the anatomical differences between those encountered in Ghana compared to in the UK. Most inguinoscrotal hernias were due to a longstanding patent processus vaginalis that commonly required transection of the sac to facilitate reduction. Furthermore, these hernias were embedded within a well developed cremasteric muscle and tended to encircle the cord structures, which made dissection of the sac more troublesome. In many instances, partial excision of the cremaster was required in order to effect sound mesh repair around the deep ring.

Personal Experience

I can honestly say that the experience of operating solidly for 12 hours each day, in an environment subject to power cuts, poor lighting, a lack of running water and frequently defective equipment has been the most rewarding of my career to date! I was especially proud of Natasha, who as the sole anaesthetist dealt effectively with a number of challenging anaesthetic situations, mainly related to leaking circuits and a limited oxygen supply.

During the week I performed a total of 32 procedures: 21 inguinal hernia repairs (three recurrent), six paediatric inguinal herniotomies, two incisional hernia repairs, two hydrocoelectomies and one epigastric hernia repair. Eleven of these procedures were performed independently with the consultant operating in another theatre. Many patients had travelled long distances for their surgery and I was humbled by the gratitude that they showed our team. I was amazed at how well the patients tolerated their procedures and it was often quite difficult to get them to admit that they were in any pain. In the UK, I could never imagine performing a sizeable inguinal hernia under local anaesthetic in a 30 year old male without any form of sedation.

The local nursing staff at all three centres worked tirelessly and were extremely welcoming. There was no need to rely on iTunes for entertainment in theatre, as we were often serenaded with gospel singing throughout the cases! Anaesthetic cover was provided by nurse anaesthetists who for the most part were highly skilled and keen to learn from Natasha. I was particularly impressed by the nurses at the Hernia Centre who were actively engaged in improving their practice and had implemented the use of pre-assessment proformas, antibiotic protocols and a handwashing policy. They were ably led by Sister Marion who had previously undertaken a one month elective placement at Derriford hospital (Figure 5). The only reluctance we encountered from the nursing staff occurred at Dixcove when we embarked on our final case of the day at 7.00pm. We later learned that the staff preferred to leave in daylight hours to avoid the snakes that would appear at night on their walk home!

It was at Dixcove that we encountered patients with the largest hernias (Figure 6). The community at Dixcove is less affluent than Takoradi with one doctor serving the needs of over 20,000 patients. Consequently, these hernias were longstanding and in one instance emergency repair of a hernia that had become obstructed was required. The reality of everyday life in this community was illustrated by the case of a 6 year old boy with an inguinal hernia who only weighed 13kg. We decided not to proceed with surgery as he had a right basal pneumonia and instead admitted him for intravenous antibiotics. Despite also having recently recovered from malaria, his mother was still desperate for him to undergo surgery as his hernia was limiting the physical contribution he could make to domestic tasks.

Social Aspects

Ghana was the first African nation to gain independence from the British in 1957 and is proud of its status as a stable parliamentary democracy in a politically volatile region. It is a majority Christian country, with a sizeable Muslim minority, and is compromised of over 100 ethnic groups. It is the relative inter-religious and inter-ethnic tolerance that has seen Ghana avoid the civil wars that have afflicted neighbouring states. Whilst in Accra, we visited the Kwame Nkrumah Memorial Park where we able to learn more about the birth of Ghana as a modern nation and the concept of pan-Africanism (Figure 7). This also proved to be a popular setting for newlyweds to pose for their wedding photographs! It is perhaps the following quote from Nkrumah that best sums up Ghana’s drive to achieve middle-income country status by 2015,

‘We have the blessing of the wealth of our vast resources, the power of our talents and the potentialities of our people. Let us grasp now the opportunities before us and meet the challenge to our survival.’


This was a thoroughly worthwhile mission for all those involved. Despite having never met each other before, I thought that the team gelled together well. Shina was an inspiring team leader, navigating us through several tricky situations (often related to Ghanaian taxi journeys!). Harjeet and Roger provided sound advice and were both excellent trainers. The contribution from Natasha and Melanie was immense who managed to instigate a change in practice with regards to the administration of spinal anaesthesia – tilt the patient head down, rather than perform a second injection of local anaesthetic if the spinal does not act immediately. I found Rafay to be a supportive and well-rounded colleague who like me benefitted tremendously from this experience. It was not until I returned to work in the UK that I realised that this mission has matured me both as a surgeon and as a person. It has taught me to be adaptable, more understanding of the limitations within the NHS and perhaps most importantly has given me a much needed perspective on life. I would recommend, therefore, that any trainee looking to broaden their surgical horizons should become involved with a humanitarian mission.


I have listed below two simple but achievable aims that would improve the quality of care received by the patients in Takoradi.

Routine adoption of the WHO pre-operative checklist at all hospitals.
The purchase of portable pulse oximeters for patient monitoring both peri- and post-operatively. We donated our own to Dixcove hospital. This may be best achieved through Lifebox, a not-for-profit organisation, that aims to put a pulse oximeter in every operating theatre throughout the developing world (


I am grateful to ASiT, Operation Hernia and Howard Eggleston for providing financial support. Thanks must also go to Mr Chris Oppong, Dr Bernard Boateng-Duah and Mr Eddie Prah for ensuring such a memorable and well organised mission.


DL Sander, Porter CS, Mitchell KC, Kingsnorth AN. Operation Hernia: humanitarian hernia repairs in Ghana. Hernia 2008;12:527-529
Clarke MG, Oppong C, Simmermacher R, Park K, Kurzer M, Vanotoo L, Kingsnorth AN. The use of sterilised mosquito net for inguinal hernia repair in Ghana. Hernia 2009;13:155-159
Kingsnorth AN. A clinical classification for patients with inguinal hernia. Hernia 2004;8:282-284

Tables and Figures

Table 1

Table 2